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We talked a bit about the way Subversion tracks and manages information in a working copy. If you need to archive old versions of files and directories, possibly resurrect them, or examine logs of how they've changed over time, then Subversion is exactly the right tool for you. Locking may cause unnecessary serialization. Subversion does this by keeping private caches of pristine, unmodified versions of each versioned file inside its working copy administrative areas. On November 20, , Guinness World Records revealed that BTS had earned a spot in their edition for "having the world's most Twitter engagements for a music group".

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To view a copy of this license, visit http: A bad Frequently Asked Questions FAQ sheet is one that is composed not of the questions people actually ask, but of the questions the FAQ's author wishes people would ask. Perhaps you've seen the type before:.

Many of our customers want to know how they can maximize productivity through our patented office groupware innovations. The answer is simple. But it's a lot easier to make up imaginary Frequently Asked Questions than it is to discover the real ones. Compiling a true FAQ sheet requires a sustained, organized effort: It calls for the patient, observant attitude of a field naturalist.

No grand hypothesizing, no visionary pronouncements here—open eyes and accurate note-taking are what's needed most. What I love about this book is that it grew out of just such a process, and shows it on every page. It is the direct result of the authors' encounters with users.

It began with Ben Collins-Sussman's observation that people were asking the same basic questions over and over on the Subversion mailing lists: Do branches and tags work the same way as in other version control systems? How can I find out who made a particular change? Frustrated at seeing the same questions day after day, Ben worked intensely over a month in the summer of to write The Subversion Handbook , a page manual that covered all the basics of using Subversion.

The manual made no pretense of being complete, but it was distributed with Subversion and got users over that initial hump in the learning curve. When O'Reilly decided to publish a full-length Subversion book, the path of least resistance was obvious: The three coauthors of the new book were thus presented with an unusual opportunity. Officially, their task was to write a book top-down, starting from a table of contents and an initial draft.

But they also had access to a steady stream—indeed, an uncontrollable geyser—of bottom-up source material. Subversion was already in the hands of thousands of early adopters, and those users were giving tons of feedback, not only about Subversion, but also about its existing documentation.

During the entire time they wrote this book, Ben, Mike, and Brian haunted the Subversion mailing lists and chat rooms incessantly, carefully noting the problems users were having in real-life situations. Monitoring such feedback was part of their job descriptions at CollabNet anyway, and it gave them a huge advantage when they set out to document Subversion.

The book they produced is grounded firmly in the bedrock of experience, not in the shifting sands of wishful thinking; it combines the best aspects of user manual and FAQ sheet. This duality might not be noticeable on a first reading. Taken in order, front to back, the book is simply a straightforward description of a piece of software.

There's the overview, the obligatory guided tour, the chapter on administrative configuration, some advanced topics, and of course, a command reference and troubleshooting guide. Only when you come back to it later, seeking the solution to some specific problem, does its authenticity shine out: Of course, no one can promise that this book will answer every question you have about Subversion.

Sometimes the precision with which it anticipates your questions will seem eerily telepathic; yet occasionally, you will stumble into a hole in the community's knowledge and come away empty-handed. The authors are still there and still watching, and the authors include not just the three listed on the cover, but many others who contributed corrections and original material.

From the community's point of view, solving your problem is merely a pleasant side effect of a much larger project—namely, slowly adjusting this book, and ultimately Subversion itself, to more closely match the way people actually use it. They are eager to hear from you, not only because they can help you, but because you can help them. With Subversion, as with all active free software projects, you are not alone.

Doubly so when you can't. As unpleasant as it is to be trapped by past mistakes, you can't make any progress by being afraid of your own shadow during design. In the world of open source software, the Concurrent Versions System CVS was the tool of choice for version control for many years.

And rightly so. CVS was open source software itself, and its nonrestrictive modus operandi and support for networked operation allowed dozens of geographically dispersed programmers to share their work.

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It fit the collaborative nature of the open source world very well. CVS and its semi-chaotic development model have since become cornerstones of open source culture. But CVS was not without its flaws, and simply fixing those flaws promised to be an enormous effort.

Enter Subversion. While the result wasn't—and isn't—the next great evolution in version control design, Subversion is very powerful, very usable, and very flexible. This book is written to document the 1. We have made every attempt to be thorough in our coverage. However, Subversion has a thriving and energetic development community, so already a number of features and improvements are planned for future versions that may change some of the commands and specific notes in this book.

That is, Subversion manages files and directories, and the changes made to them, over time. This allows you to recover older versions of your data or examine the history of how your data changed. Subversion can operate across networks, which allows it to be used by people on different computers. At some level, the ability for various people to modify and manage the same set of data from their respective locations fosters collaboration.

Progress can occur more quickly without a single conduit through which all modifications must occur. And because the work is versioned, you need not fear that quality is the trade-off for losing that conduit—if some incorrect change is made to the data, just undo that change.

Some version control systems are also software configuration management SCM systems. These systems are specifically tailored to manage trees of source code and have many features that are specific to software development—such as natively understanding programming languages, or supplying tools for building software.

Subversion, however, is not one of these systems. It is a general system that can be used to manage any collection of files. For you, those files might be source code—for others, anything from grocery shopping lists to digital video mixdowns and beyond. If you're a user or system administrator pondering the use of Subversion, the first question you should ask yourself is: If you need to archive old versions of files and directories, possibly resurrect them, or examine logs of how they've changed over time, then Subversion is exactly the right tool for you.

If you need to collaborate with people on documents usually over a network and keep track of who made which changes, then Subversion is also appropriate. This is why Subversion is so often used in software development environments—working on a development team is an inherently social activity, and Subversion makes it easy to collaborate with other programmers.

Of course, there's a cost to using Subversion as well: You'll need to manage a data repository to store the information and all its history, and be diligent about backing it up. When working with the data on a daily basis, you won't be able to copy, move, rename, or delete files the way you usually do.

Instead, you'll have to do all of those things through Subversion. Assuming you're fine with the extra workflow, you should still make sure you're not using Subversion to solve a problem that other tools solve better. For example, because Subversion replicates data to all the collaborators involved, a common misuse is to treat it as a generic distribution system.

People will sometimes use Subversion to distribute huge collections of photos, digital music, or software packages. The problem is that this sort of data usually isn't changing at all. The collection itself grows over time, but the individual files within the collection aren't being changed.

In early , CollabNet, Inc. Unfortunately, CVS had become the de facto standard in the open source world largely because there wasn't anything better, at least not under a free license. So CollabNet determined to write a new version control system from scratch, retaining the basic ideas of CVS, but without the bugs and misfeatures.

Coincidentally, at the time Karl was already discussing a design for a new version control system with his friend Jim Blandy. In , the two had started Cyclic Software, a company providing CVS support contracts, and although they later sold the business, they still used CVS every day at their jobs. Their frustration with CVS had led Jim to think carefully about better ways to manage versioned data, and he'd already come up with not only the Subversion name, but also the basic design of the Subversion data store.

When CollabNet called, Karl immediately agreed to work on the project, and Jim got his employer, Red Hat Software, to essentially donate him to the project for an indefinite period of time. It turned out that many people had encountered the same frustrating experiences with CVS and welcomed the chance to finally do something about it. The original design team settled on some simple goals.

They didn't want to break new ground in version control methodology, they just wanted to fix CVS. They decided that Subversion would match CVS's features and preserve the same development model, but not duplicate CVS's most obvious flaws. And although it did not need to be a drop-in replacement for CVS, it should be similar enough that any CVS user could make the switch with little effort.

That is, Subversion developers stopped using CVS to manage Subversion's own source code and started using Subversion instead. While CollabNet started the project, and still funds a large chunk of the work it pays the salaries of a few full-time Subversion developers , Subversion is run like most open source projects, governed by a loose, transparent set of rules that encourage meritocracy.

In , CollabNet worked with the Subversion developers towards the goal of integrating the Subversion project into the Apache Software Foundation ASF , one of the most well-known collectives of open source projects in the world. Subversion's technical roots, community priorities, and development practices were a perfect fit for the ASF, many of whose members were already active Subversion contributors.

In early , Subversion was fully adopted into the ASF's family of top-level projects, moved its project web presence to http: On one end is a Subversion repository that holds all of your versioned data. On the other end is your Subversion client program, which manages local reflections of portions of that versioned data. Between these extremes are multiple routes through a Repository Access RA layer, some of which go across computer networks and through network servers which then access the repository, others of which bypass the network altogether and access the repository directly.

Subversion, once installed, has a number of different pieces. The following is a quick overview of what you get. Don't be alarmed if the brief descriptions leave you scratching your head— plenty more pages in this book are devoted to alleviating that confusion. A program for reporting the state in terms of revisions of the items present of a working copy.

A custom standalone server program, runnable as a daemon process or invokable by SSH; another way to make your repository available to others over a network. The first edition of this book was published by O'Reilly Media in , shortly after Subversion had reached 1. Since that time, the Subversion project has continued to release new major releases of the software. Here's a quick summary of major new changes since Subversion 1.

Note that this is not a complete list; for full details, please visit Subversion's web site at http: Release 1. While the Berkeley DB backend is still widely used and supported, FSFS has since become the default choice for newly created repositories due to its low barrier to entry and minimal maintenance requirements. Also in this release came the ability to put symbolic links under version control, auto-escaping of URLs, and a localized user interface.

While Subversion is still a fundamentally concurrent version control system, certain types of binary files e. The locking feature fulfills the need to version and protect such resources. With locking also came a complete WebDAV auto-versioning implementation, allowing Subversion repositories to be mounted as network folders. Finally, Subversion 1. The Apache server, however, gained some new logging features of its own, and Subversion's API bindings to other languages also made great leaps forward.

Major parts of the working copy metadata were revamped to no longer use XML resulting in client-side speed gains , while the Berkeley DB repository backend gained the ability to automatically recover itself after a server crash. This was a huge boon for users, and pushed Subversion far beyond the abilities of CVS and into the ranks of commercial competitors such as Perforce and ClearCase.

Subversion 1. Also, the command-line client introduced a new shortcut syntax for referring to Subversion repository URLs. This book is written for computer-literate folk who want to use Subversion to manage their data. While Subversion runs on a number of different operating systems, its primary user interface is command-line-based. That command-line tool svn , and some additional auxiliary programs, are the focus of this book.

For consistency, the examples in this book assume that the reader is using a Unix-like operating system and is relatively comfortable with Unix and command-line interfaces. That said, the svn program also runs on non-Unix platforms such as Microsoft Windows. Most readers are probably programmers or system administrators who need to track changes to source code.

This is the most common use for Subversion, and therefore it is the scenario underlying all of the book's examples. But Subversion can be used to manage changes to any sort of information—images, music, databases, documentation, and so on. To Subversion, all data is just data.

While this book is written with the assumption that the reader has never used a version control system, we've also tried to make it easy for users of CVS and other systems to make a painless leap into Subversion. Note also that the source code examples used throughout the book are only examples.

While they will compile with the proper compiler incantations, they are intended to illustrate a particular scenario and not necessarily to serve as examples of good programming style or practices. Technical books always face a certain dilemma: A top-down learner prefers to read or skim documentation, getting a large overview of how the system works; only then does she actually start using the software.

Most books tend to be written for one type of person or the other, and this book is undoubtedly biased toward top-down learners. And if you're actually reading this section, you're probably already a top-down learner yourself! However, if you're a bottom-up person, don't despair. While the book may be laid out as a broad survey of Subversion topics, the content of each section tends to be heavy with specific examples that you can try-by-doing.

Regardless of your learning style, this book aims to be useful to people of widely different backgrounds—from those with no previous experience in version control to experienced system administrators. Depending on your own background, certain chapters may be more or less important to you.

The assumption here is that you've probably used version control before and are dying to get a Subversion server up and running ASAP. Your administrator has probably set up Subversion already, and you need to learn how to use the client. Whether you're a user or administrator, eventually your project will grow larger.

These chapters aren't critical at first, but be sure to read them once you're comfortable with the basics. Presumably, you're already familiar with Subversion, and now want to either extend it or build new software on top of its many APIs. These are the chapters you're mostly likely to come back to after you've finished the book.

Explains the basics of version control and different versioning models, along with Subversion's repository, working copies, and revisions. Walks you through a day in the life of a Subversion user. It demonstrates how to use a Subversion client to obtain, modify, and commit data. Covers more complex features that regular users will eventually come into contact with, such as versioned metadata, file locking, and peg revisions.

Discusses branches, merges, and tagging, including best practices for branching and merging, common use cases, how to undo changes, and how to easily swing from one branch to the next. Describes the basics of the Subversion repository, how to create, configure, and maintain a repository, and the tools you can use to do all of this.

Explains how to configure your Subversion server and offers different ways to access your repository: HTTP , the svn protocol, and local disk access. It also covers the details of authentication, authorization and anonymous access. Explores the Subversion client configuration files, the handling of internationalized text, and how to make external tools cooperate with Subversion.

Describes the internals of Subversion, the Subversion filesystem, and the working copy administrative areas from a programmer's point of view. It also demonstrates how to use the public APIs to write a program that uses Subversion. Explains in great detail every subcommand of svn , svnadmin , and svnlook with plenty of examples for the whole family!

For the impatient, a whirlwind explanation of how to install Subversion and start using it immediately. You have been warned. Covers the similarities and differences between Subversion and CVS, with numerous suggestions on how to break all the bad habits you picked up from years of using CVS. Included are descriptions of Subversion revision numbers, versioned directories, offline operations, update versus status , branches, tags, metadata, conflict resolution, and authentication.

A copy of the Creative Commons Attribution License, under which this book is licensed. This book started out as bits of documentation written by Subversion project developers, which were then coalesced into a single work and rewritten. In fact, the book was written in the public eye, originally as part of the Subversion project itself. This means two things:.

You will always find the latest version of this book in the book's own Subversion repository. You can make changes to this book and redistribute it however you wish—it's under a free license. Your only obligation is to maintain proper attribution to the original authors. Of course, we'd much rather you send feedback and patches to the Subversion developer community, instead of distributing your private version of this book.

The online home of this book's development and most of the volunteer-driven translation efforts regarding it is http: There you can find links to the latest releases and tagged versions of the book in various formats, as well as instructions for accessing the book's Subversion repository where its DocBook XML source code lives.

Feedback is welcomed—encouraged, even. This book would not be possible nor very useful if Subversion did not exist. For that, the authors would like to thank Brian Behlendorf and CollabNet for the vision to fund such a risky and ambitious new open source project; Jim Blandy for the original Subversion name and design—we love you, Jim; and Karl Fogel for being such a good friend and a great community leader, in that order.

Thanks to O'Reilly and the team of professional editors who have helped us polish this text at various stages of its evolution: Your patience and support has been tremendous. Finally, we thank the countless people who contributed to this book with informal reviews, suggestions, and patches.

An exhaustive listing of those folks' names would be impractical to print and maintain here, but may their names live on forever in this book's version control history! You'll thank us when you realize just how much space that saves! This chapter is a short, casual introduction to Subversion and its approach to version control.

We begin with a discussion of general version control concepts, work our way into the specific ideas behind Subversion, and show some simple examples of Subversion in use. Even though the examples in this chapter show people sharing collections of program source code, keep in mind that Subversion can manage any sort of file collection—it's not limited to helping computer programmers.

A version control system or revision control system is a system that tracks incremental versions or revisions of files and, in some cases, directories over time. Of course, merely tracking the various versions of a user's or group of users' files and directories isn't very interesting in itself. What makes a version control system useful is the fact that it allows you to explore the changes which resulted in each of those versions and facilitates the arbitrary recall of the same.

In this section, we'll introduce some fairly high-level version control system components and concepts. We'll limit our discussion to modern version control systems—in today's interconnected world, there is very little point in acknowledging version control systems which cannot operate across wide-area networks.

At the core of the version control system is a repository, which is the central store of that system's data. The repository usually stores information in the form of a filesystem tree —a hierarchy of files and directories. Any number of clients connect to the repository, and then read or write to these files. By writing data, a client makes the information available to others; by reading data, the client receives information from others.

Why is this interesting? So far, this sounds like the definition of a typical file server. And indeed, the repository is a kind of file server, but it's not your usual breed. What makes the repository special is that as the files in the repository are changed, the repository remembers each version of those files.

When a client reads data from the repository, it normally sees only the latest version of the filesystem tree. But what makes a version control client interesting is that it also has the ability to request previous states of the filesystem from the repository. Most software programs understand how to operate only on a single version of a specific type of file.

So how does a version control user interact with an abstract—and, often, remote—repository full of multiple versions of various files in a concrete fashion? How does his or her word processing software, presentation software, source code editor, web design software, or some other program—all of which trade in the currency of simple data files—get access to such files?

The answer is found in the version control construct known as a working copy. A working copy is, quite literally, a local copy of a particular version of a user's VCS-managed data upon which that user is free to work. The task of managing the working copy and communicating changes made to its contents to and from the repository falls squarely to the version control system's client software.

If the primary mission of a version control system is to track the various versions of digital information over time, a very close secondary mission in any modern version control system is to enable collaborative editing and sharing of that data. But different systems use different strategies to achieve this.

It's important to understand these different strategies, for a couple of reasons. First, it will help you compare and contrast existing version control systems, in case you encounter other systems similar to Subversion. Beyond that, it will also help you make more effective use of Subversion, since Subversion itself supports a couple of different ways of working.

All version control systems have to solve the same fundamental problem: It's all too easy for users to accidentally overwrite each other's changes in the repository. Suppose we have two coworkers, Harry and Sally. They each decide to edit the same repository file at the same time. If Harry saves his changes to the repository first, it's possible that a few moments later Sally could accidentally overwrite them with her own new version of the file.

While Harry's version of the file won't be lost forever because the system remembers every change , any changes Harry made won't be present in Sally's newer version of the file, because she never saw Harry's changes to begin with. Harry's work is still effectively lost—or at least missing from the latest version of the file—and probably by accident. This is definitely a situation we want to avoid!

Many version control systems use a lock-modify-unlock model to address the problem of many authors clobbering each other's work. In this model, the repository allows only one person to change a file at a time. This exclusivity policy is managed using locks. If Harry has locked a file, Sally cannot also lock it, and therefore cannot make any changes to that file.

All she can do is read the file and wait for Harry to finish his changes and release his lock. After Harry unlocks the file, Sally can take her turn by locking and editing the file. The problem with the lock-modify-unlock model is that it's a bit restrictive and often becomes a roadblock for users:.

Locking may cause administrative problems. Sometimes Harry will lock a file and then forget about it. Meanwhile, because Sally is still waiting to edit the file, her hands are tied. And then Harry goes on vacation. Now Sally has to get an administrator to release Harry's lock. The situation ends up causing a lot of unnecessary delay and wasted time. Locking may cause unnecessary serialization.

What if Harry is editing the beginning of a text file, and Sally simply wants to edit the end of the same file? These changes don't overlap at all. They could easily edit the file simultaneously, and no great harm would come, assuming the changes were properly merged together. There's no need for them to take turns in this situation.

Locking may create a false sense of security. Suppose Harry locks and edits file A, while Sally simultaneously locks and edits file B. But what if A and B depend on one another, and the changes made to each are semantically incompatible? Suddenly A and B don't work together anymore. The locking system was powerless to prevent the problem—yet it somehow provided a false sense of security.

It's easy for Harry and Sally to imagine that by locking files, each is beginning a safe, insulated task, and thus they need not bother discussing their incompatible changes early on. Locking often becomes a substitute for real communication. Subversion, CVS, and many other version control systems use a copy-modify-merge model as an alternative to locking. In this model, each user's client contacts the project repository and creates a personal working copy.

Users then work simultaneously and independently, modifying their private copies. Finally, the private copies are merged together into a new, final version. The version control system often assists with the merging, but ultimately, a human being is responsible for making it happen correctly.

Here's an example. Say that Harry and Sally each create working copies of the same project, copied from the repository. They work concurrently and make changes to the same file A within their copies. Sally saves her changes to the repository first. When Harry attempts to save his changes later, the repository informs him that his file A is out of date.

In other words, file A in the repository has somehow changed since he last copied it. So Harry asks his client to merge any new changes from the repository into his working copy of file A. Chances are that Sally's changes don't overlap with his own; once he has both sets of changes integrated, he saves his working copy back to the repository. But what if Sally's changes do overlap with Harry's changes?

What then? This situation is called a conflict , and it's usually not much of a problem. When Harry asks his client to merge the latest repository changes into his working copy, his copy of file A is somehow flagged as being in a state of conflict: Note that software can't automatically resolve conflicts; only humans are capable of understanding and making the necessary intelligent choices.

Once Harry has manually resolved the overlapping changes—perhaps after a discussion with Sally—he can safely save the merged file back to the repository. The copy-modify-merge model may sound a bit chaotic, but in practice, it runs extremely smoothly. Users can work in parallel, never waiting for one another. When they work on the same files, it turns out that most of their concurrent changes don't overlap at all; conflicts are infrequent.

And the amount of time it takes to resolve conflicts is usually far less than the time lost by a locking system. In the end, it all comes down to one critical factor: When users communicate poorly, both syntactic and semantic conflicts increase. No system can force users to communicate perfectly, and no system can detect semantic conflicts.

So there's no point in being lulled into a false sense of security that a locking system will somehow prevent conflicts; in practice, locking seems to inhibit productivity more than anything else. While the lock-modify-unlock model is considered generally harmful to collaboration, sometimes locking is appropriate.

The copy-modify-merge model is based on the assumption that files are contextually mergeable—that is, that the majority of the files in the repository are line-based text files such as program source code. But for files with binary formats, such as artwork or sound, it's often impossible to merge conflicting changes.

In these situations, it really is necessary for users to take strict turns when changing the file. Without serialized access, somebody ends up wasting time on changes that are ultimately discarded. While Subversion is primarily a copy-modify-merge system, it still recognizes the need to lock an occasional file, and thus provides mechanisms for this.

We've mentioned already that Subversion is a modern, network-aware version control system. In this section, we'll begin to introduce the specific ways in which Subversion implements version control. Subversion implements the concept of a version control repository much as any other modern version control system would.

Unlike a working copy, a Subversion repository is an abstract entity, able to be operated upon almost exclusively by Subversion's own libraries and tools. As most of a user's Subversion interactions involve the use of the Subversion client and occur in the context of a working copy, we spend the majority of this book discussing the Subversion working copy and how to manipulate it.

A Subversion client commits that is, communicates the changes made to any number of files and directories as a single atomic transaction. By atomic transaction, we mean simply this: Subversion tries to retain this atomicity in the face of program crashes, system crashes, network problems, and other users' actions.

Each time the repository accepts a commit, this creates a new state of the filesystem tree, called a revision. Each revision is assigned a unique natural number, one greater than the number assigned to the previous revision. The initial revision of a freshly created repository is numbered 0 and consists of nothing but an empty root directory.

Imagine an array of revision numbers, starting at 0, stretching from left to right. Unlike most version control systems, Subversion's revision numbers apply to the entire repository tree , not individual files. Each revision number selects an entire tree, a particular state of the repository after some committed change.

Another way to think about it is that revision N represents the state of the repository filesystem after the Nth commit. Many other version control systems use per-file revision numbers, so this concept may seem unusual at first. Subversion client programs use URLs to identify versioned files and directories in Subversion repositories. For the most part, these URLs use the standard syntax, allowing for server names and port numbers to be specified as part of the URL.

Subversion repository URLs aren't limited to only the http: Because Subversion offers several different ways for its clients to communicate with its servers, the URLs used to address the repository differ subtly depending on which repository access mechanism is employed. Subversion's handling of URLs has some notable nuances.

For example, URLs containing the file: Also, users of the file: Either of the two following URL path syntaxes will work, where X is the drive on which the repository resides:. Also note that when using the file: You cannot use Subversion's file: When you attempt to view a file: The Subversion client will automatically encode URLs as necessary, just like a web browser does.

For example, the URL http: The New York Times. Simon Wiesenthal Center. November 11, USA Today. November 13, November 16, The Movie ' ". Retrieved December 4, Retrieved November 21, The Year in Live Events". Vivid Seats. December 18, Retrieved December 6, December 8, Retrieved February 5, Retrieved March 12, Retrieved February 11, Entertainment Tonight.

The Daily Dot. May 12, Archived from the original on February 2, Manila Bulletin Entertainment. Archived from the original on January 2, September 16, Retrieved October 16, Retrieved July 21, Global Economic in Korean. Archived from the original on October 14, K-Pop's Social Conscience".

Archived from the original on December 5, Archived from the original on April 20, Archived from the original on October 22, Retrieved October 22, September 18, Retrieved January 1, Retrieved May 31, Archived from the original on September 1, Retrieved September 2, Archived from the original on November 13, February 27, Retrieved January 25, Retrieved December 18, Retrieved October 12, Retrieved October 15, Retrieved March 28, Retrieved October 8, South China Morning Post.

Won per Year". Retrieved Metro Seoul in Korean. The Guardian. Retrieved February 27, Retrieved December 28, Herald Corporation. V Live. Sports Seoul. April 23, July 6, Joynews24 in Korean. August 8, Sports News. SBS funE. October 26, June 13, Retrieved March 8, November 28, Korea Portal.

How K-pop helped Korea improve its economy". The Economic Times. January 25, Tribune Times in Indonesian. Business Post in Korean. The Wealth Record. January 6, Tenasia in Korean. October 19, Retrieved October 20, Retrieved January 22, Archived from the original on February 1, Retrieved January 27, Archived from the original on September 14, Retrieved November 14, Retrieved February 7, Japan in Japanese.

December 17, Archived from the original on February 9, Retrieved March 10, Huffington Post Canada. Branding in Asia Magazine. March 20, SE Daily in Korean. Retrieved April 3, April 30, Sports Chosun in Korean. Retrieved November 27, Inven Global. Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved January 31, The China Post.

January 19, Dailian News. August 26, Retrieved January 30, Retrieved February 15, FN Times in Korean. Retrieved August 11, Vlive in Korean. Archived from the original on February 7, Kim, Reporter Su Kyung December 2, TenAsia in Korean. Seo, Jae-kyeong December 2, Xsports News.

Archived from the original on April 23, BigHit Entertainment. October 31, Hwang, Ji Young November 1, Daily Sports. Drysdale, Jennifer November 1, ET Online. Retrieved January 21, Retrieved January 6, April 5, ABC News. Retrieved January 18, Rolling Stone India. CBS News. September 20, Retrieved September 20, January 17, Retrieved January 19, MTV in Italian. Mumbrella Asia.

Answer" Photos". Teen Vogue. International Business Times. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 14, Retrieved December 31, Rap Monster". Tower Japan in Japanese. November 7, Retrieved November 26, Retrieved November 20, December 14, Retrieved December 13, Retrieved October 31, Mnet America — [Go!

Archived from the original on October 6, Retrieved September 4, Onsen in Korean. Retrieved March 14, Korean Portal. Retrieved October 30, Wake Up Youth Face Yourself. Her Map of the Soul: The Most Beautiful Moment in Life: Young Forever Love Yourself: Speak Yourself.

Love Myself. Run BTS! Burn the Stage: The Movie Love Yourself in Seoul. Albums discography Songs discography Awards and nominations Videography. Big Hit Entertainment. Bang Si-hyuk. Awards Won by BTS. S , Fin. Let me love — Jo Sung-mo Chapter 4: Road — g. Answer - BTS L Forbes Korea Power Celebrity.

Tear — BTS Authority control LCCN: Retrieved from " https: Hidden categories: On March 14th, , Tumblr [6] user heatcrashemboar posted the "expand dong" image. On April 21st, the same image was posted in a comment on the Internet humor site Funnyjunk. On July 22nd and 23rd, Tumblr [9] [10] user foalonthehill posted two video game box arts featuring the Donkey Kong character Dixie Kong and the Super Mario character Luigi in a similar style to the original expand dong image shown below.

In the first five months, both posts received over 1, notes. On July 30th, the Tumblr [5] blog "Tumbl Trends" highlighted several notable expand dong examples. Dec 06, at Dec 03, at Know Your Meme is an advertising supported site and we noticed that you're using an ad-blocking solution.

By using this site, you are agreeing by the site's terms of use and privacy policy and DMCA policy. No thanks, take me back to the meme zone! Like us on Facebook! About Expand Dong is a photoshop meme featuring the face of the Nintendo character Donkey Kong with perverted captions below it.

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Halloween There you can find links to the latest releases and tagged versions of the book in various formats, as well as instructions for accessing the book's Subversion repository where its DocBook XML source code lives. Retrieved November 20, Publish commit your changes. Instead, you'll have to do all of those things through Subversion. Delete the file at its old location, and if it had local modifications, keep an on-disk copy of the file at the old location. This chapter is a short, casual introduction to Subversion and its approach to version control.

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