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Brando ultimately was dissatisfied with his performance, though, saying he never was able to bring out the humor of the character, which was ironic as his characterization often drew laughs from the audience at the expense of Jessica Tandy 's Blanche Dubois. Dick Loving, who was married to Brando's sister Frannie, said that Brando used to eat "two chickens at a sitting, and [go] through bags of Pepperidge Farm cookies. If I hadn't been an actor, I've often thought I'd have become a con man and wound up in jail. In the late s, Brando was spotted regularly buying ice cream from a Beverly Hills ice cream shop--five gallons at a time. He had to be done away with. Brando , among others. When the year-old Brando--who had already been paid part of his huge salary--appeared on the set in the Philippines, he had lost none of the weight, so Coppola and cinematographer Vittorio Storaro were forced to put Brando's character in the shadows in most shots.

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Ranked 12 in Entertainment Weekly's "Top Entertainers" of all time Received more money for his short appearance as Jor-El in Superman than Christopher Reeve did in the title role. Brando later sued for a percentage of the film's profits. He used cue cards in many of his movies because he refused to memorize his lines.

His lines were written on the diaper of the baby, "Kal-El", in Superman One of the innovators of the Method acting technique in American film. Was mentioned in La Dolce Vita in a discussion about salary paid to film stars. Adopted child: Said that the only reason he continued to make movies was in order to raise the money to produce what he said would be the "definitive" film about Native Americans.

The film was never made. Expelled from high school for riding a motorcycle through the halls. His signature was considered so valuable to collectors, that many personal checks he wrote were never cashed because his signature was usually worth more than the amount on the check. Appeared on the front sleeve of The Beatles ' classic album "Sgt.

Brando's first wife was Anna Kashfi , who bore him a son whom they named Christian. His second wife was Movita Castenada, who played the Tahitian love interest of Lt. Byam in Mutiny on the Bounty His third wife was Tarita Teriipia, who played the Tahitian love interest of Lt. Fletcher Christian in Mutiny on the Bounty He is descended from Johann Wilhelm Brandau b.

The surname was eventually changed to "Brando". He reputedly suggested that his cameo role as Jor-El in Superman be done by him in voice-over only, with the character's image onscreen being a glowing, levitating green bagel. Unsure if Brando was joking or not, the film's producers formally rejected the suggestion.

He was offered a chance to reprise his role as Vito Corleone in The Godfather: Part II and Jor El in Superman II , but he turned them both down due to his own credo that once he finished a role, he put it away and moved on. He turned down both films despite being offered three times more money than any of his co-stars.

Is one of the many movie stars mentioned in Madonna 's song "Vogue". Empire magazine profiled him as part of their "Greatest Living Actors" series. The issue containing this feature was published a week before his death. Biographer Peter Manso said that at the time of production of flops such as The Appaloosa , Brando had turned down the leading role of a Hamlet production in England, with Laurence Olivier.

During an acting class, when the students were told to act out "a chicken hearing an air-raid siren", most of the students clucked and flapped their arms in a panic, while Brando stood stock-still, staring up at the ceiling. When asked to explain himself, Brando replied, "I'm a chicken - I don't know what an air-raid siren is. Received top billing in nearly every film he appeared in, even if not cast in the lead role.

Consequently, the role was played by James Woods. My Friendship with Marlon Brando", George Englund relates how Brando told him a couple of years before his death that the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences offered him a Lifetime Achievement Oscar on the condition that he attend the ceremony to personally accept the award.

Brando refused, believing that the offer should not be conditional, and that the condition that he appear on the televised ceremony showed that the Academy was not primarily focused on honoring artistic excellence.

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He attended a staging of Eugene O'Neill 's autobiographical "Long Day's Journey Into Night" with an eye towards starring in a proposed film of the play.

The play deals with the drug addiction of Mary Tyrone, modeled after O'Neil's own mother, which, along with her husband's miserliness and her oldest son's alcoholism, has blighted her youngest son's life. When asked his opinion of the play, Brando, whose mother was an alcoholic and had died relatively young in , replied, "Lousy". Jason Robards , who originated the role of older son James Tyrone, Jr.

He was reportedly once interested in playing Pablo Picasso on film and was trying to reduce weight on a banana diet. In his autobiography, he said that he was physically attracted to Vivien Leigh during the making of A Streetcar Named Desire However, he could not bring himself to seduce her, as he found her husband, Laurence Olivier , to be such a "nice guy".

My Friendship with Marlon Brando", he testified at the manslaughter trial of his son Christian Brando that his mother and father and one of his two sisters had been alcoholics. Part II Brando was not interested but did appear in Apocalypse Now , the film Coppola actually did make after finishing The Godfather sequel.

When Coppola finally got around to making the film Tucker: According to co-producer Fred Roos , Brando was scheduled to make a cameo appearance in The Godfather: Part II , specifically in the flashback at the film's ending in which Vito Corleone comes back to his home and is greeted with a surprise birthday party.

In fact, he was expected the day of shooting but did not show up due to a salary dispute. According to Francis Ford Coppola , he had not been paid for The Godfather and thus would not appear in the sequel. Was a huge fan of Afro-Caribbean music, and changed from being a strict drummer to the congas after becoming enthralled by the music in New York City in the s. Took possession of friend Wally Cox 's ashes from his widow in order to scatter them at sea but actually kept them hidden in a closet at his house.

In his autobiography, Brando said he frequently talked to Cox. The Los Angeles Times on September 22, quoted Brando's son, Miko, to the effect that both his father's and Cox's ashes were scattered at the same time in Death Valley, California in a ceremony following Brando's death. Asked The Godfather co-star James Caan what he would want if his wishes came true. When Caan answered that he would like to be in love, Brando answered, "Me too.

But don't tell my wife. Was scheduled to appear in the David Lean -directed "Nostromo" , but when Lean died, the production came to a halt. Thus, the world missed the last of three chances to see one of the world's greatest actors work with one of the world's greatest directors. Producer Sam Spiegel , who had won an Oscar for On the Waterfront , offered Brando the title role in Lean's Lawrence of Arabia , which he turned down, saying he did not want to ride camels in the desert for two years.

Brando was Lean's first choice for the male lead in Ryan's Daughter , but Brando, who at that time was considered box office poison by movie studios, never was offered the role. Brando tried to join the Army during World War II but was rejected due to a knee injury he had sustained while playing football at Shattuck Military Academy. After he made The Men , the Korean War broke out, and he was ordered by the draft board to report for a physical prior to induction.

As his knee was better due to an operation, he initially was reclassified from 4-F to 1-A, but the military again rejected him, this time for mental problems, as he was under psychoanalysis. The story about his mother his character Paul tells Jeanne in Last Tango in Paris , about how she taught him to appreciate nature, which he illustrates with his reminiscence of his dog Dutchy hunting rabbits in a mustard field, is real, based on his own recollections of his past.

His best friend was Wally Cox , whom he had known as a child and then met again when both were aspiring actors in New York during the s. According to Brando's autobiography, there was not a day that went by when he did not think of Wally. So close did he feel to Cox, he even kept the pajamas he died in. Studied modern dance with Katherine Dunham in New York in the early s and briefly considered becoming a dancer.

Considered Montgomery Clift a friend and a "very good actor". They were not rivals, as the public perceived them to be during the s. After Clift died of a heart attack in , Brando took over his role in Reflections in a Golden Eye He became friends with Baldwin, a friendship that lasted until Baldwin's death.

Shortly before his death in , he gave EA Games permission to use his voice for its video game The Godfather After a decade of being considered "box-office poison" after the large losses generated by the big-budget remake of Mutiny on the Bounty , the twin successes of The Godfather and Last Tango in Paris made Brando a superstar again.

He was named the 6 and 10 top money-making star in and , respectively, by the Motion Picture Herald. The top 10 box-office list was based on an annual poll of movie exhibitors in the United States as to the drawing power of stars, conducted by Quigley Publications. Even before he let himself get obese and balloon up to over lb.

The Men co-star Richard Erdman claimed Brando's diet circa consisted "mainly of junk food, usually take-out Chinese or peanut butter, which he consumed by the jarful". By the mids, he was renowned for eating boxes of Mallomars and cinnamon buns, washing them down with a quart of milk.

Close friend Carlo Fiore wrote that in the s and early s, Brando went on crash diets before his films commenced shooting, but when he lost his willpower he would eat huge breakfasts consisting of corn flakes, sausages, eggs, bananas and cream, and a huge stack of pancakes drenched in syrup. Fiore was detailed by producers to drag him out of coffee shops.

Karl Malden claimed that, during the shooting of One-Eyed Jacks , Brando would have "two steaks, potatoes, two apple pies a la mode and a quart of milk" for dinner, necessitating constant altering of his costumes. During a birthday party for Brando--the film's director as well as star--the crew gave him a belt with a card reading, "Hope it fits.

His second wife Movita , who had a lock put on their refrigerator to stop pilfering by what she thought was the household staff, awoke one morning to find the lock broken and teeth marks on a round of cheese. The maid told her that Brando nightly raided the fridge. Movita also related how he often drove down to hot dog stands late at night one of his favorite spots was the legendary Pink's Hot Dogs in Hollywood; it was open 24 hours a day, and Brando would go there at 3: Mutiny on the Bounty costumer James Taylor claimed that Brando split the seat on 52 pairs of pants during the shooting of the film, necessitating that stretch fabric be sewn into his replacement duds.

He split those, too. Ice cream was the culprit: Brando would purloin a five-gallon tub of the fattening dessert, row himself out into the lagoon and indulge. On the set of The Appaloosa , Brando's double often had to be used for shooting after lunch, and filming could only proceed in long shots, as Brando could no longer fit into his costumes.

Dick Loving, who was married to Brando's sister Frannie, said that Brando used to eat "two chickens at a sitting, and [go] through bags of Pepperidge Farm cookies. Living on his island of Tetioroa, Brando created what he called "real-life Mounds Bars" by cracking open a coconut, melting some chocolate in the sun, then stirring it into the coconut for a tasty treat.

By the s, there were reports that one of his girlfriends had left him because he failed to keep his promise of losing weight. He seemed to be dieting, but to her astonishment, he never lost weight. She found out that his buddies had been throwing bags of Burger King Whoppers over the gates of his Mulholland Dr. In the late s, Brando was spotted regularly buying ice cream from a Beverly Hills ice cream shop--five gallons at a time.

He supposedly confessed that he was eating it all himself. Finally, a reported Brando snack was a pound of cooked bacon shoved into an entire loaf of bread. When Brando became sick, he seriously cut back and lost 70 pounds on a bland diet, but never lost his love of food and especially ice cream. Won his seventh, and last, Best Actor Oscar nomination in , for Last Tango in Paris , after he had generated much ill-will in Hollywood by refusing his Oscar for The Godfather It proves that voting members are interested only in performances, not in sidelights.

Scott , also was nominated as Best Actor the year following his snubbing of the Academy. So far, Brando, Scott and screenwriter Dudley Nichols , who refused to accept his Oscar for the movie The Informer due to a Writers Guild strike, are the only people out of more than 2, winners to turn down the Award. In his September Playboy magazine interview, director Sam Peckinpah said that a problem with One-Eyed Jacks is that Brando would not play a villain.

Peckinpah had worked on rewriting the script, which was based on the novel "The Authentic Death of Hendry Jones", a retelling of the Billy the Kid legend. According to Peckinpah, Billy the Kid was a genuine villain, whereas Brando's character "Rio" was not, thus lessening the dramatic impact of the story. He praised Brando for his acting comeback as Don Corleone in The Godfather , both as the return of a great actor and as an example of Brando's newfound willingness to shuck off his old predilection and actually play a villain.

At the 77th Academy Awards ceremony, he was the last person featured in the film honoring film industry personalities who had passed away the previous year. When she announced him as the winner, Brando took the gum out of his mouth and shook hands with fellow nominee Bing Crosby , who had been reckoned the favorite that night, before going on stage to accept the statuette.

Bette Davis , who had presented Brando with his first Best Actor Oscar at the 27th Academy Awards in , told the press that she was thrilled he had won. She elaborated, "He and I had much in common. He, too, had made many enemies. He, too, is a perfectionist. When participating in the March on Washington, brandished a cattle prod to show the world the brutality blacks faced in the South.

Attended the memorial service for slain Black Panthers member Bobby Hutton. Tithed a tenth of his income to various black civil-rights organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. He and director Tony Kaye paid , pounds sterling for footage of what allegedly is the "Angel of Mons", according to The Sunday Times March 11, The film allegedly was found in August in a junk-shop, which had a trunk belonging to a man called William Doidge, a World War I veteran.

Doidge had been at Mons in August and knew about or possibly saw the apparition in the sky as the British army retreated before the overwhelming German advance. After the war he became obsessed by these apparitions. An American war veteran told him in that angels had appeared before some American troops were drowned during an exercise in at Woodchester Park in the Cotswolds.

Doidge went there with a movie camera and supposedly captured images of them. Kaye planned to make a film of the incident, starring Brando as the American veteran, but the plans fell through when the two fell out over an acting video. The news agency Reuters, in an article about about Vanity Fair magazine's upcoming Hollywood issue, reported after his death that Brando repeatedly voiced objections to appearing in The Godfather According to Brando's friend Budd Schulberg , who won an Oscar writing the screenplay for On the Waterfront , Brando repeatedly told his assistant Alice Marchak that he would not be in a film that glorified the Mafia.

Schulberg said that Marchak pestered him to read the bestseller, and at one point he threw the book at her, saying, "For the last time, I won't glorify the Mafia! Marchak told Schulberg this went on for awhile, with Brando trying different mustaches, until he finally won the role after agreeing to a screen test. Among the actors he beat out for the role were Laurence Olivier , who was too sick to work on the film, and Burt Lancaster , who had offered to do a screen test for the role and was looked on favorably by Paramount brass.

He was voted the 15th Greatest Movie Star of all time by Premiere magazine. He constantly referred to his good friend Johnny Depp as "the most talented actor of his generation". He liked to box. While performing as Stanley Kowalski in the stage version of "A Streetcar Named Desire", he would often persuade a member of the stage crew to spar with him in a room underneath the stage between his acts.

During one of these impromptu boxing matches, a crew member surprised him with a hard punch to the nose. Brando's nose was broken so badly that it literally was split across its bridge. He managed to go on stage and finish the play despite the fact that backstage efforts to stanch the bleeding had failed, but he was taken to the hospital immediately after. His famous broken-beak nose was the result of his having taken off his bandages in order to cover his nose with Mercurochrome to make it look particularly bad when he was visited by the play's producer, Irene Mayer Selznick.

The subterfuge worked, as Selznick gave him two weeks off from the grind of the play he was on stage with "Streetcar" for two years , but by taking the bandages off, his nose did not properly set. Believed that he could control stress in his life and physical pain through meditation.

So sure he was of this, that he wanted to prove it. When he decided in the early s to be circumcised, he wanted the doctor to do the operation with no anesthesia so that he could show off this skill. The doctor refused because of medical ethics, but Brando underwent the operation anyway after receiving a painkilling shot in his back.

However, he wanted to show the doctors what he could do, and he asked them to take his blood pressure. Through meditation, he brought his blood pressure down more than 20 points. Elton John 's song "Goodbye Marlon Brando" was inspired by the actor's retirement in His The Night of the Following Day co-star Richard Boone directed the final scenes of the film at the insistence of Brando, who could no longer tolerate what he considered the incompetence of director Hubert Cornfield.

The film is generally considered the nadir of Brando's career. Shortly before his death, his doctors had told him that the only way to prolong his life would be to insert tubes carrying oxygen into his lungs. He refused permission, preferring to die naturally. For both licenses, he used the name "Martin Brandeaux". His decision to play the title role in The Island of Dr.

Moreau turned out to be an offer that he definitely should have refused. The vote was cast by Razzie Award founder John Wilson, who always chooses to vote last. At the time of his death at age 80, Brando had been suffering from congestive heart failure, advanced diabetes and pulmonary fibrosis damage to the tissue inside the lungs resulting from a bout of pneumonia in Doctors had recently discovered a tumor inside his liver, but he died before they could operate to remove it.

In a review of Brando's film The Chase , film critic Rex Reed commented that "most of the time, he sounds like he has a mouth full of wet toilet paper". Contrary to popular belief, Brando was not an atheist. At his son's trial, where he supposedly revealed his atheism and refused to swear upon a Bible, his actual words were, "While I do believe in God, I do not believe in the same way as others, so I would prefer not to swear on the Bible.

Years after "Apocalypse Now" was released, a television film was made of Heart of Darkness , which featured Ian McDiarmid in a small role. Brando's first Oscar was for On the Waterfront , where his famous lines were "I coulda had class. I coulda been a contender. I could been somebody. Coppola had envisioned Kurtz as a lean and hungry warrior; the character of Kurtz in the Conrad novellas was a wraith and weighed barely more than a child despite his great stature, due to his suffering from malaria.

When the year-old Brando--who had already been paid part of his huge salary--appeared on the set in the Philippines, he had lost none of the weight, so Coppola and cinematographer Vittorio Storaro were forced to put Brando's character in the shadows in most shots.

In the penultimate appearance of Kurtz in the film, when he appears in silhouette in the doorway of his temple compound as the sacrificial bull is lead out, a very tall double about 6' 5" was used to try to give the character a greater physical stature, rather than just Buddha-like belly-fat that girded the 5' 10" Brando.

He did not get around to reading the novella until many years later. He did not like to sign autographs for collectors. Because of this, his own autograph became so valuable that many checks he wrote went uncashed--his signature on them was worth more than the value of the check itself. Ironically, his secretary Alice Marchak remembered a time when a fan asked for his autograph.

Brando promptly signed the fan's autograph book twice. Brando then told the fan that he had heard that one John Wayne autograph was equal to two Marlon Brando's on the collector's market. In his biography "The Only Contender" by Gary Carey, Brando was quoted as saying, "Like a large number of men, I, too, have had homosexual experiences, and I am not ashamed. It was his idea for Jor-El to wear the "S" insignia as the family crest in Superman Is mentioned in Robbie Williams ' song "Advertising Space".

Brando had turned down the lead role in David Lean 's masterpiece Lawrence of Arabia , which had been offered by producer Sam Spiegel , because he did not like the lengthy shooting schedule. Ironically, "Bounty" itself wound up with an extensive shooting schedule due to a snail-pace schedule caused by a plethora of problems due to location shooting. Elizabeth Taylor had previously broken the million-dollar mark for a single picture with her renegotiated contract for Cleopatra Both films went vastly over schedule and wildly over budget and wound up hemorrhaging rivers of red ink despite relatively large grosses, though Taylor's flick outshone Brando's in the area of fiscal irresponsibility and wound up bankrupting its studio, 20th Century-Fox.

It was the price he quoted Francis Ford Coppola for his services for Apocalypse Now , but Coppola refused to meet his demands and McQueen stayed off the screen for four years. Brando made more money from his share of "Apocalypse Now" than from any other picture he appeared in; it financed his own retirement from the screen during the s.

Spiegel was worried that motorcycle enthusiast Brando would kill himself like James Dean had, in an accident Brando had had lacerated his knee while biking before filming began. Spiegel constantly queried "Chase" director Arthur Penn as to whether Brando had brought his motorcycle with him to the filming.

When Brando got wind of this, he had the bike brought over to the set on a trailer and left on the lot to play a joke on Spiegel, who quickly arrived at the shooting to see that Brando did not drive it. When Spiegel found out it was all a joke, the normally taciturn producer laughed heartily.

Spiegel originally had acquired the property that became "The Chase" in the s and wanted Brando to play the role of Jason "Jake" Rogers and Marilyn Monroe to play his lover, Anna Reeves. By the time production began in , Brando was too old to play the role of the son, and took the role of Sheriff Calder instead.

Brando did not like the role, and complained that all he did in the picture was wander around. He began referring to himself as "The Old Lamplighter". However, many critics and cinephiles consider Sheriff Calder one of his best performances. Brando told Lawrence Grobel "Conversations with Brando" that the movie, which he only made for the money as he was broke, was ruined in the editing room, with the humor of his scenes cut out.

In his autobiography, Brando--in a caption for a picture from the film--recounts that George C. Scott asked him during the shooting of the film whether he, Brando, would ever give the same line - reading twice. Brando replied, "I know you know a cue when you hear one.

Scott said that Brando was not that good a player. Brando had to sue Francis Ford Coppola to get all the money owed to him from his percentage of the profits of Apocalypse Now Brando characterized the people in the movie industry as "liars" to Lawrence Grobel who conducted his Playboy interview: They all do that, as they make interest on the money It's all so ugly, I hate the idea of having to act, but there's no other way to do it.

The producers of the film adaptation of Sir Peter Shaffer 's play Equus were interested in casting either Brando or Jack Nicholson in the lead role of Dr. Martin Dysart. The role went instead to Richard Burton , who had to "screen-test" for the role by agreeing to appear in the play on Broadway.

Burton did, got rave reviews and a special Tony Award, and won his seventh and last Oscar nomination for the role. In his diary, Burton wrote that in the late s, he was always one of the first actors producers turned to when Brando turned down a role. He then flew to Dahomey, Africa, where Taylor was shooting The Comedians with husband Richard Burton to personally deliver the award.

Brando later socialized with the Burtons, visiting them on their famous yacht the Kalizma, while they plied the Mediterreanean. Brando's ex-wife Anna Kashfi , in her book "Brando for Breakfast" , claimed that Brando and Burton got into a fistfight aboard the yacht, probably over Liz, but nothing of the incident appears in Burton's voluminous diaries, in which Burton says he found Brando to be quite intelligent but believed he suffered, like Liz did, from becoming too famous too early in his life.

He recognized Brando as a great actor, but felt he would have been more suited to silent films due to the deficiency in his voice the famous "mumble". As a silent film star, Burton believed Brando would have been the greatest motion picture actor ever. After a two-day preliminary hearing in early August , the presiding judge ruled that enough evidence had been presented to try Christian on first-degree murder charges.

He soon accepted a cameo role in the film Christopher Columbus: Brando's friend, actor William Redfield , mentioned him prominently in the memoir he wrote about the stage production of "Hamlet" later transferred to film as Hamlet directed by John Gielgud and starring Richard Burton. That is, they believed that Brando's more naturalistic style, combined with his greatness as an actor, would prove a challenge to the more stylized and technical English acting paradigm epitomized by Laurence Olivier , and that Brando would supplant Olivier as the world's greatest actor.

Redfield would tell Burton stories of Brando, whom the Welsh actor had not yet met. Redfield sadly confessed that Brando, by not taking on roles such as Hamlet and furthermore, by betraying his craft by abandoning the stage, thus allowing his instrument to be dulled by film work , had failed not only as an actor, but had failed to help American actors create an acting tradition that would rival the English in terms of expertise.

When Brando was interviewed by Connie Chung for her television program Saturday Night with Connie Chung , broadcast on October 7, , he said he was upset with the picture and mentioned the charitable gift the producers had made on his bequest to show his commitment to toppling apartheid in South Africa. McQueen, who was obsessed with Newman as his rival as a movie actor and superstar, had bought the script from William Goldman , originally called "The Sundance Kid and Butch Cassidy".

McQueen was slated to play "The Sundance Kid". When he dropped out and Newman took over the production, the title was reversed and Brando was offered the role. He declined in order to film Burn! Brando earlier had dropped out of Elia Kazan 's The Arrangement shortly after the assassination of Dr.

Martin Luther King. Brando told Kazan he could not star in a run-of-the-mill movie after King's assassination. Instead, he opted for "Burn", which was a pro-revolutionary story about a rebellion of African slaves in the Caribbean. The very last film role that was ever offered to him was Rayburn in Man on Fire , less than a year before he passed away.

The role instead went to Christopher Walken. Batman creator Bob Kane was relieved that he was not cast, as he considered Brando the "wrongest possible choice for the role". Keith Richards 's son, Marlon Richards is named after him. Signed on to appear in director Sidney Lumet 's adaptation of the play Child's Play as schoolteacher Joseph Dobbs, but backed out just before principal photography was to begin when he realized James Mason had the better role as his schoolteacher rival.

According to Bob Thomas ' "Brando: Portrait of the Artist as a Rebel", Brando quit the production when he realized his flagging career would soon be revitalized by the The Godfather A last-minute replacement, Robert Preston was signed to take over the role, and though a fine actor, he bombed in the performance due to over-projection of his voice Preston had been playing mainly in the theater in the previous decade.

Brando subsequently was sued by producer David Merrick. Both were offered the role by David Lean , and both turned the role down. However, a month went by and Brando failed to respond to Lean's written inquiry into whether he wanted to play Komarovsky, so the director offered the role to James Mason , who was a generation older than Brando. Lean decided on Mason, who initially accepted the role, as he did not want an actor who would overpower the character of Yuri Zhivago specifically, to show Zhivago up as a lover of Lara, who would be played by the young Julie Christie , which the charismatic Brando might have done, shifting the sympathy of the audience.

Mason eventually dropped out and Rod Steiger , who had just won the Silver Bear as Best Actor for his role as the eponymous The Pawnbroker , accepted the role. Made the Top 10 Poll of Money-Making Stars, as ranked by Quigley Publications' annual survey of movie exhibitors, five times from to He debuted at 10 in , and climbed to 6 in before falling off the list in He again made the list, as 4, in He did not appear on the list again until , when he was ranked the 6 Box Office star after the extraordinary success of The Godfather He made one last appearance in , going out as he had come onto the list, at Supported John F.

Kennedy in the presidential election. At the ceremony, Clint Eastwood remarked he did not know whether he should dedicate the Oscar he was presenting to "all the cowboys shot in John Ford 's westerns". Michael Caine , nominated for his performance in Sleuth , angrily condemned Brando's actions while Rock Hudson remarked, "Sometimes to be eloquent is to be silent.

He was close friends with the reclusive singer Michael Jackson for many years, even appearing in his music video "You Rock My World" in The last time Brando left his bungalow in Hollywood was to stay at Jackson's Neverland Ranch in the summer of Brando's children: Brando b. Also adopted three children: His character Ken Wilcheck in his cinema debut The Men has the nickname "Bud", which was his own nickname as he was a "junior".

Brando's father, Marlon Brando Sr. The only other film in which Brando goes by the name which his family and intimate friends called him is The Night of the Following Day After he received his first Academy Award nomination Best Actor for A Streetcar Named Desire , Brando impishly told the Hollywood press corps that he would not attend the ceremony but would send a cab driver in his place to pick up the Oscar, should he win the award.

Indeed, Brando did not attend, and some columnists claimed that a cabby actually was in attendance in Brando's seat at Los Angeles' RKO Pantages Theatre the night of ceremony of March 20, Alas, Brando was the sole "Steetcar" acting nominee not to win that night as Humphrey Bogart took home the gold, so the question can never be satisfactorily resolved.

Impressed by the young man, Brando promptly appointed him his agent Kantor was the inspiration for the character Teddy Z on the television series The Famous Teddy Z Sean Penn told writer Charles Bukowski that Brando put scripts from producers into his freezer, in order to use them as targets in skeet shooting.

Brando would take the frozen scripts and have them tossed in the air into the canyon below his home at night, and then proceed to blast them into smithereens with a shotgun while they were on the fly. By freezing the scripts, the pages were stiff and made for better "clay pigeon" substitutes.

The practice is mentioned in one of Bukowski's poems. Bukowski also wrote about Brando in his short story "You Kissed Lilly", in which Lilly masturbates while watching Brando in a movie on television. The story is part of the collection "Hot Water Music" Nonetheless, Gilliam treasured the time he got to spend with Brando.

The role later was played by Oliver Reed , who spent his time drinking and trying to seduce Uma Thurman , who was a virgin at the time. However, Brando had become notoriously reclusive by the time the project got underway and turned down the role. He was an avid user of the Internet in his final years, often going into chat rooms to start arguments.

Subject of the song "I'm Stuck in a Condo with Mr. Marlon Brando" by The Dickies. Brando , among others. Originally considered too young at 23 to play Stanley Kowalski in the Broadway version of "A Streetcar Named Desire", and the producers of the show tried to get year-old Burt Lancaster , newly a huge star in movies thanks to The Killers When Lancaster was unable to get permission from the film studio, Brando was given the part and became an overnight sensation.

Turned down Edmund Purdom 's role in The Egyptian He was originally cast in John Wayne 's role as Genghis Khan in The Conqueror , but backed out at the last minute. A large part of his estate was bought by entrepreneur Keya Morgan. Is related to four presidents of the United States: Scofield accepted the role, but had to drop out of shooting after breaking his arm and was replaced by Richard Burton.

Nicholson later bought Brando's home from his estate. Brando's first Oscar nomination for A Streetcar Named Desire marked his first of four consecutive nominations, a feat he shares with Jennifer Jones , Thelma Ritter , Elizabeth Taylor and Al Pacino However, he did consider The Marx Brothers "embarassing". Former brother-in-law of Eliot Asinof.

Encouraged Johnny Depp to get himself a private island just like his one in Tahiti. In the summer of , he started shooting a movie called "Divine Rapture" in the tiny Irish village of Ballycotton, County Cork. Marlon was playing a priest in the film and he had dyed his hair red for the role.

Shooting began, but was never completed due to lack of financing. Biography in: Volume 7, , pages Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, Spoke French fluently, from his marriage to his Mutiny on the Bounty co-star Tarita. The movie was the first Brando had made in nine years. He claimed that MGM reneged on its own matching contribution to the group and that he was uncertain how much the group received from MGM because of his percentage.

Brando's anger with MGM over reneging on its charitable contribution and for cutting his scenes which he felt were a more forceful indictment of apartheid and had been done to prevent South Africa's then-apartheid government from banning the studio's films was felt to be one of the reasons that Brando gave his first interview in many years.

While making Mutiny on the Bounty in Tahiti, Brando fell in love with the place. So in , he purchased Tetiaroa, a small atoll located approximately 30 miles north of Tahiti. Tetiaroa is to be the site of a lavish new ecological hotel called The Brando. Consisting of 30 deluxe fares villas , it will be the only hotel on Tetiaroa. In the last three years of his life, Marlon filmed a series of classes of him giving acting lessons to Sean Penn , Jon Voight and Nick Nolte.

The DVDs were never released publicly following his death. He died in at age 80, from obesity, pulmonary fibrosis, diabetes, cardiac failure, and an enlarged liver suggesting cancer. He allegedly refused to be interviewed for Hearts of Darkness: His Sacheen Littlefeather controversy at the Oscars resulted in the Academy setting stricter rules that nominees cannot send someone else to accept the award onstage or address the audience, and only the presenter is allowed to accept on the winner's behalf.

Exceptions are made in the case that the honoree genuinely could not attend due to illness or death. Charlie Bluhdorn , who owned Paramount, demanded that he surrender his points for the cash, and Brando did. Upon its release, "The Godfather" became the top-grossing film of all time. Brando was so angry, he refused to appear in The Godfather: Part II unless he was compensated for his bad deal.

Paramount refused. Paramount cast Robert Redford instead. Brando was a great fan of French actress Arletty , who had played Blanche Dubois on the Paris stage and was in a film he greatly admired, Children of Paradise When he went to Paris, he made it a point to meet her but was disappointed, calling her a "real tough bird". Acquired the nickname of 'Bud' to distinguish himself from his father whom he disliked.

When asked to contribute to his biography for the theater program of "I Remember Mama", Brando claimed he was born in Calcutta and had a Great Dane whom he feeds "dehydrated cubes of dog food". Brando slept on the couch and was a voracious eater. Brando agreed to appear in Candy as a favour to friend Christian Marquand, who helped with Brando's negotiations with the French government in purchasing the Tahitian island of Tetiaroa.

Brando enjoyed talking to strangers on other islands or passing boats on his ham radio anonymously. He did not used his real name, and often called himself "Mike" or "Matin Bumby" and spoke in very believable French, German and Japanese accents. Had appeared in two Best Picture Academy Award winners: On the Waterfront and The Godfather He won his first Oscar for On the Waterfront on March 20, , four days before he turned age 31, making him the youngest Best Actor winner.

He held the record for 23 years. In late , this was suggested that he might play William the Conqueror in an epic film which would be the first Cinerama movie to tell a dramatic story instead of being simply a travelogue. Reports suggested that Maria Schell might be his leading lady, that Christopher Fry might write the script and that Laurence Olivier might direct.

However, the film was never made, and it seems likely that none of these celebrities was actually made any firm offer. This was several years more before the first narrative films in Cinerama. Was one of the many Hollywood celebrities who like to make weekend visit's to Ralph Helfer 's "Africa U. About a year into the run of A Streetcar Named Desire on the New York stage he was fooling around with some of the guys backstage and ended up with a broken nose.

Soon after his birth the family moved to Libertyville, Illinois where he was raised. In his youth, he praised Fredric March as his favorite actor. During his emotional performance in "The Men", he brought co-star Teresa Wright to tears. Starred in seven Oscar Best Picture nominees: The Godfather and Apocalypse Now On the Waterfront and The Godfather both won.

Mutiny on the Bounty and Apocalypse Now were the only two out of these for which he was not also nominated for Best Actor. Was a co-star to seven Oscar winning acting performances: As he rarely signed autographs; his checks became sought after collector's items. They kept in contact and exchanged correspondence on a regular basis until Bow's death from a heart attack on September 27, He has appeared in seven films that have been selected for the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically or aesthetically" significant: A Filmed Record He has also directed one film that is in the registry: One-Eyed Jacks.

The more sensitive you are, the more likely you are to be brutalised, develop scabs and never evolve. Never allow yourself to feel anything because you always feel too much. The only thing an actor owes his public is not to bore them. I don't know what people expect when they meet me. They seem to be afraid that I'm going to piss in the potted palm and slap them on the ass.

I put on an act sometimes, and people think I'm insensitive. Really, it's like a kind of armour because I'm too sensitive. If there are two hundred people in a room and one of them doesn't like me, I've got to get out. If you're successful, acting is about as soft a job as anybody could ever wish for.

But if you're unsuccessful, it's worse than having a skin disease. He never wondered, he never doubted. His ego was very secure. And he had the kind of brutal aggressiveness that I hate. I'm afraid of it. I detest the character. I don't want to spread the peanut butter of my personality on the mouldy bread of the commercial press.

The most repulsive thing you could ever imagine is the inside of a camel's mouth. That and watching a girl eat octopus or squid. With women, I've got a long bamboo pole with a leather loop on the end. I slip the loop around their necks so they can't get away or come too close. Like catching snakes. If there's anything unsettling to the stomach, it's watching actors on television talk about their personal lives.

I put on some makeup, stuffed Kleenex in my cheeks and worked out the characterization first in front of a mirror, then on a television monitor. After working on it, I decided I could create a characterization that would support the story. The people at Paramount saw the footage and liked it, and that's how I became the Godfather. They say, "What did you do while you took time out?

But the fact is, making movies is time out for me because the rest, the nearly complete whole, is what's real for me. I'm not an actor and haven't been for years. I'm a human being - hopefully a concerned and somewhat intelligent one - who occasionally acts. Regret is useless in life. It's in the past. All we have is now.

Acting is the expression of a neurotic impulse. It's a bum's life. Quitting acting is a sign of maturity. Even today I can't pay a check in Little Italy. It was an ass-breaker. You work yourself to death. You're the first one up in the morning I mean, we shot that thing [ One-Eyed Jacks ] on the run, you know. You make up the dialog the scene before, improvising, and your brain is going crazy.

I don't like to think that way. Everybody has their own value in different ways, and I don't like to think who's the best at this. I mean, what's the point of it? I've made all the money I need to make. I won a couple of Academy Awards if I ever cared about that. I've been nominated I don't know how many times and I'm in a position of respect and standing in my craft as an actor in this country.

So what the hell, I don't need to gild the lily. I don't think ever in my life that so many people were so directly responsible for my being so very, very happy. If the vacuum formed by Dr. He had to be done away with. The American government couldn't let him live. If 23 million blacks found a charismatic leader like he was, they would have followed him. The powers that be couldn't accept that.

It is a simple fact that all of us use the techniques of acting to achieve whatever ends we seek Acting serves as the quintessential social lubricant and a device for protecting our interests and gaining advantage in every aspect of life. It seems to me hilarious that our government put the face of Elvis Presley on a postage stamp after he died from an overdose of drugs.

His fans don't mention that because they don't want to give up their myths. They ignore the fact that he was a drug addict and claim he invented rock 'n' roll when in fact he took it from black culture; they had been singing that way for years before he came along, copied them and became a star. I'm one of those people who believes that if I'm very good in this life I'll go to France when I die.

Even today, I meet people who think of me automatically as a tough, insensitive, coarse guy named Stanley Kowalski. They can't help it, but it is troubling. A movie that I was in, called On the Waterfront And people often spoke about that, "Oh, my God, what a wonderful scene, Marlon, blah blah blah blah blah.

The situation was wonderful. Everybody feels like he could have been a contender, he could have been somebody, everybody feels as though he's partly bum, some part of him. He is not fulfilled and he could have done better, he could have been better. Everybody feels a sense of loss about something.

So that was what touched people. It wasn't the scene itself. There are other scenes where you'll find actors being expert, but since the audience can't clearly identify with them, they just pass unnoticed. Wonderful scenes never get mentioned, only those scenes that affect people. Most people want those fantasies of those who are worthy of our hate - we get rid of a lot of anger that way; and of those who are worthy of our idolatry.

Whether it's Farrah Fawcett or somebody else, it doesn't make a difference. They're easily replaceable units, pick 'em out like a card file. Johnnie Ray enjoyed that kind of hysterical popularity, celebration, and then suddenly he wasn't there anymore. The Beatles are now nobody in particular. Once they set screaming crowds running after them, they ran in fear of their lives, they had special tunnels for them.

They can walk almost anyplace now. Because the fantasy is gone. Elvis Presley - bloated, over the hill, adolescent entertainer, suddenly drawing people into Las Vegas - had nothing to do with excellence, just myth. It's convenient for people to believe that something is wonderful, therefore they're wonderful.

If Wally [ Wally Cox ] had been a woman, I would have married him and we would have lived happily ever after. The only reason I'm in Hollywood is that I don't have the moral courage to refuse the money. Privacy is not something that I'm merely entitled to, it's an absolute prerequisite. This is a false world. It's been a struggle to try to preserve my sanity and sense of reality taken away by success.

I have to fight hard to preserve that sense of reality so as to bring up my children. I always enjoyed watching John Wayne , but it never occurred to me until I spoke with Indians how corrosive and damaging and destructive his movies were - most Hollywood movies were. You can't even get mad at it; it's so insane that there's just nothing to say about it.

He would be, according to his point of view, someone not disposed to returning any of the colonial possessions in Africa or Asia to their rightful owners. He would be sharing a perspective with B. Under this system if the traveller does not have his cattle with him he must give valuables to the woman as a deposit until a kid goat is delivered to her.

The woman in the story was not a legitimate prostitute but actually was Judah's widowed daughter-in-law, who sought to trick Judah into impregnating her. However, since she succeeded in impersonating a prostitute her conduct can be assumed to accurately represent the behaviour of a prostitute in society during that time period. In a later Biblical story, found in the Book of Joshua , a prostitute in Jericho named Rahab assisted Israelite spies by providing them with information regarding the current socio-cultural and military situation.

Rahab was knowledgeable in these matters because of her popularity with the high-ranking nobles. The Israelite spies, in return for this information, promised to save her and her family during the planned military invasion, only if she kept the details of her contact with them a secret.

She would leave a sign on her residence that indicated to the advancing soldiers not to attack the people within. When the people of Israel conquered Canaan, she converted to Judaism and married a prominent member of the people. However the word "whore" could also be translated as "Idolatress".

The first Babylonian prostitute was in a place called Hinchinopolises, which arose from the appraised Hinchin family. At the time Hinchinapolis was the center of attraction for all travelers who came to rest in the company of the family's women, who perfected the art of satisfaction.

Some ancient scrolls could tell us that the meaning of Hinchin came from the Hebrew Hinam , meaning free, because the males of the family would offer themselves for free. Among the Aztecs , the Cihuacalli was the name given to the controlled buildings where prostitution was permitted by political and religious authorities. Cihuacalli is a Nahuatl word which means House of Women.

The Cihuacalli was a closed compound with rooms, all looking over a central patio. At the center of the patio was a statue of Tlazolteotl , the goddess of purification, steam baths, midwives, filth and a patroness of adulterers. Religious authorities believed women should work as prostitutes, if they wish, only at such premises guarded by Tlazolteotl. It was believed that Tlazolteotl had the power to incite sexual activity, while cleansing the spirit of such acts.

Inca prostitutes were segregated from other people and lived under the supervision of a government agent. In ancient Greece, both women and boys engaged in prostitution. They were required to wear distinctive dresses and had to pay taxes. Some similarities have been found between the Greek hetaera and the Japanese oiran , complex figures that are perhaps in an intermediate position between prostitution and courtisanerie.

See also the Indian tawaif. Some prostitutes in ancient Greece, such as Lais were as famous for their company as their beauty , and some of these women charged extraordinary sums for their services. Solon instituted the first of Athens' brothels oik'iskoi in the sixth century BC, and with the earnings of this business he built a temple dedicated to Aphrodite Pandemos , goddess of sexual pleasure.

Procuring, however, was severely forbidden. In Cyprus Paphus and in Corinth , a type of religious prostitution was practiced where the temple counted more than a thousand prostitutes hierodules , Gr: Each specialized category had its proper name, so there were the chamaitypa'i , working outdoor lie-down , the perepatetikes who met their customers while walking and then worked in their houses , and the gephyrides , who worked near the bridges.

In the fifth century, Ateneo informs us that the price was 1 obole , a sixth of a drachma and the equivalent of an ordinary worker's day salary. The rare pictures describe that sex was performed on beds with covers and pillows, while triclinia usually didn't have these accessories. Male prostitution was also common in Greece. Adolescent boys usually practiced it, a reflection of the pederastic custom of the time.

Slave boys worked the male brothels in Athens, while free boys who sold their favours risked losing their political rights as adults. Prostitution in ancient Rome was legal, public and widespread. Even Roman men of the highest social status were free to engage prostitutes of either sex without incurring moral disapproval, [14] as long as they demonstrated self-control and moderation in the frequency and enjoyment of sex.

Latin literature also often refers to prostitutes. Real-world practices are documented by provisions of Roman law that regulate prostitution. Inscriptions , especially graffiti from Pompeii , uncover the practice of prostitution in Ancient Rome. Some large brothels in the fourth century, when Rome was becoming Christianized, seem to have been counted as tourist attractions and were possibly state-owned.

While prostitution was so widely accepted, prostitutes were often considered shameful. Most were slaves or former slaves, or if free by birth relegated to the infames , people lacking in social standing and deprived of the protections that most citizens under Roman law received. A registered prostitute was called a meretrix while the unregistered one fell under the broad category prostibulae.

There were some similarities between the Ancient Roman and Greek system, but as the Empire grew, prostitutes were often foreign slaves , captured, purchased or raised for the purpose of prostitution. This was sometimes done by large-scale "prostitute farmers" where abandoned children were raised, and almost always raised to become prostitutes.

Buyers were allowed to inspect naked men and women for sale in private and there was no stigma attached to the purchase of males by a male aristocrat. Scholars have studied the history of prostitution in India from ancient times to the present. A tawaif was a courtesan who catered to the nobility of South Asia , particularly during the era of the Mughal Empire.

These courtesans would dance, sing, recite poetry and entertain their suitors at mehfils. Like the geisha tradition in Japan, their main purpose was to professionally entertain their guests. While sex was often incidental, it was not assured contractually. The most popular or highest-class tawaifs could often pick and choose between the best of their suitors.

They contributed to music, dance, theatre, film and the Urdu literary tradition. The term devadasi originally described a Hindu religious practice in which girls were married and dedicated to a deity deva or devi. They were in charge of taking care of the temple, performing rituals they learned and practicing Bharatanatyam and other classical Indian arts traditions.

This status allowed them to enjoy a high social status. The popularity of devadasis seems to have reached its pinnacle around the 10th and 11th centuries. The rise and fall in the status of devadasis can be seen to be running parallel to the rise and fall of Hindu temples. Due to the destruction of temples by Islamic invaders, the status of the temples fell very quickly in North India and slowly in South India.

As the temples became poorer and lost their patron kings, and in some cases were destroyed, the devadasis were forced into a life of poverty and prostitution. During the British East India Company 's rule in India in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, it was initially fairly common for British soldiers to engage in inter-ethnic prostitution in India , where they would frequently visit local Indian nautch dancers.

In the seventh century, the prophet Muhammad declared that prostitution is forbidden. Women and girls from the Caucasus , Africa , Central Asia and Europe were captured and served as concubines in the harems of the Arab World. According to Shia Muslims, the prophet Muhammad sanctioned fixed-term marriage , called muta'a in Iraq and sigheh in Iran , which according to some Western writers, has allegedly been used as a legitimizing cover for sex workers, in a culture where prostitution is otherwise forbidden.

However, Sunnis have fixed-term marriages, such as nikah urfi , nikah Misyar , and nikah halala. Fundamentalist Sunnis called for sexual jihad. Shias deem all sexual relations outside of proper marriage the only being nikah or nikah mutah as illegal, forbidden and against the sunnah. Like the Shia, Sunnis regard prostitution as sinful and forbidden. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Portuguese visitors and their South Asian and sometimes African crew members often engaged in slavery in Japan , where they brought or captured young Japanese women and girls, who were either used as sexual slaves on their ships or taken to Macau and other Portuguese colonies in Southeast Asia , the Americas [29] and India.

Prostitution in China was due to a weak familial economy among the rural families of the country. These lives of borderline starvation drove many women out of the rural countryside to the port side cities of China. Many of the women who took part in the prostitution of China were either sold into the industry or willingly joined. Due to their lack of economic stability, parents were unable to feed all the mouths of the house and often sold their daughters into the industry.

The popularity of this industry stemmed from the over population in rural villages, and an overall life of poverty for the majority of Chinese families. In Southeast Asia, prostitution was mostly prevalent in Singapore , due to its active ports. Certain districts of Singapore were dedicated brothel districts sanctioned by the colonial governments. Merchant ships carried large crews of men, who lacked the company of women for days on end.

As these ships docked in Asian ports, like Singapore, they were drawn to the market of prostitution. This higher demand for the company of a woman created the need for these brothel districts. From the 15th century, Chinese , Korean and other Far Eastern visitors began frequenting brothels in Japan.

These mistaken assumptions were due to the Indian city of Goa being a central base for the Portuguese East India Company and also due to a significant portion of the crew on Portuguese ships being Indian Christians. In the early 17th century, there was widespread male and female prostitution throughout the cities of Kyoto , Edo and Osaka , Japan. Oiran were courtesans in Japan during the Edo period.

To entertain their clients , oiran practiced the arts of dance, music, poetry and calligraphy as well as sexual services, and education was considered essential for sophisticated conversation. Many became celebrities of their times outside the pleasure districts. Their art and fashions often set trends among wealthy women.

The last recorded oiran was in In the early 20th century, the problem of regulating prostitution according to modern European models was widely debated in Japan. During the Middle Ages prostitution was commonly found in urban contexts. Although all forms of sexual activity outside of marriage were regarded as sinful by the Roman Catholic Church , prostitution was tolerated because it helped prevent the greater evils of rape , sodomy and masturbation.

After the decline of organized prostitution of the Roman empire, many prostitutes were slaves. However, religious campaigns against slavery and the growing marketisation of the economy turned prostitution back into a business. By the High Middle Ages it was common to find town governments ruling that prostitutes were not to ply their trade within the town walls , but they were tolerated outside, only because these areas were beyond the jurisdiction of the authorities.

In many areas of France and Germany town governments came to set aside certain streets as areas where prostitution could be tolerated. This allowed the government to outlaw any prostitution taking place outside these brothels. In much of Northern Europe a more tolerant attitude could be found towards prostitution. By the end of the 15th century attitudes began to harden against prostitution.

An outbreak of syphilis in Naples during , which later swept across Europe, may have originated from the Colombian Exchange. By the early 16th century the association between prostitutes, plague and contagion emerged, causing brothels and prostitution to be outlawed by secular authority. The Church's stance on prostitution was three-fold. It included the "acceptance of prostitution as an inevitable social fact, condemnation of those profiting from this commerce, and encouragement for the prostitute to repent.

The Church used Mary Magdalene's biblical history of being a reformed harlot to encourage prostitutes to repent and mend their ways. Magdalene Homes were particularly popular and peaked in the early 14th century. With the advent of the Protestant Reformation , numbers of Southern German towns closed their brothels in an attempt to eradicate prostitution.

They sometimes wore very short hair or no hair at all, and sometimes they wore veils in societies where other women did not wear them. Ancient codes regulated the crime of a prostitute that dissimulated her profession. They also were as sex workers. In the 18th century, presumably in Venice , prostitutes started using condoms made with catgut or cow bowel.

In America, prostitution was seen as a "necessary evil" that aided in marital fidelity, especially as a system that would allow men to obtain sex when their wives did not desire it. In the s, prostitution was becoming more visible in American cities, and with the professionalization of police forces, visible prostitutes such as streetwalkers risked arrest. In , prostitution was legalized and regulated in the city of St.

Louis Missouri. However, due to protests and demonstrations organized by women and members of the clergy, Missouri legislators repealed the legislation allowing regulated prostitution. The Page Act of was passed by the US Congress and forbid any importation of women for the purpose of prostitution. Many of the women who posed in 19th- and earlyth-century vintage erotica were prostitutes.

The most famous were the New Orleans women who posed for E. In the 19th century legalized prostitution became a public controversy as France and then the United Kingdom passed the Contagious Diseases Acts. This legislation mandated pelvic examinations for suspected prostitutes. It applied not only to the United Kingdom and France, but also to their overseas colonies.

Many early feminists fought to repeal these laws, either on the grounds that prostitution should be illegal and therefore not government regulated or because it forced degrading medical examinations upon women. A similar situation existed in the Russian Empire. This included prostitutes operating out of government-sanctioned brothels given yellow internal passports signifying their status and were subjected to weekly physical exams.

Leo Tolstoy 's novel Resurrection describes legal prostitution in 19th-century Russia. During the 19th century the British in India began to adopt the policy of social segregation, but they continued to keep their brothels full of Indian women. The houses of prostitution found in every mining camp worldwide were famous, especially in the 19th century when long distance imports of prostitutes became common.

Chinese women were frequently sold by their families and taken to the camps as prostitutes, and were often forced to send their earnings back to the family in China. She nursed victims of an influenza epidemic, earning her acceptance in the community and the support of the sheriff. The townspeople were shocked when she was murdered in and they honoured her with a lavish funeral and hanging of her assailant.

Until the s, madams predominately ran the businesses, after which male pimps took over.

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Acting is an illusion, a form of histrionic slight of hand, and in order to carry it off, an actor must have intense concentration. I saw him as a decent person regardless of what he had to do, as a man who believed in family values and was shaped by events just like the rest of us. He let me do anything. Worked as a department store elevator operator before he became famous. When he dropped out and Newman took over the production, the title was reversed and Brando was offered the role. The situation was wonderful. I am a very hot, complacent, submissive boy, I like challenges. Just a boy making his way through life.

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